Termeni de referinta ABA

Posted on: 14 noiembrie, 2008

1. Behavior analysis


The science that studies environmental events that change behavior in called BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS.


SKINNER is view as the founder of  the science of behavior analysis.


Applications of behavior analysis to solve practical problems began in the year 1970.


Behavior analysis studies such private events as thoughts and feelings as a form of BEHAVIOR.

Behavior analysis is the study of  ENVIRONMENTAL events that CHANGE behavior.


Behavior analysis view most behavior as VOLUNTARY.


Skinner called thoughts, emotions and feelings PRIVATE EVENTS.


The preblem of using private events to explain behavior is that you still have to EXPLAIN the private events.

Looking for the causes of behavior in environmental events is called the principle of PUBLIC EVENTS.

The strategy for solving human problems that defines the problem as behavioral is the BEHAVIORAL STRATEGY.


2. Definitions of everyday behavior


A behavioral definition tells you exactly what behavior to OBSERVE.


Behavior is anything that a person DOES. (activities that are obvious, subtle, internal or private).

A statement that describes exactly what behavior to observe is a BEHAVIORLA DEFINITION.


Two advantages of behavioral definitions is that they make communication CLEARER and they produce more consistent OBSERVATIONS.


SELF-REPORT observation: the observer relies on their MEMORY of the behavior, and it is usually AVOID and UNKNOWN ACCURACY., it is often WRONG, and cannot be checked.


DIRECT OBSERVATION: the observer personally SEES and RECORDS behavior.

3. Methods for the observation of everyday behavior


Regarding to direct observation:


OUTCOME recording – you record a response when you see the RESULT of the behavior, after the response.

EVENT recording – you record a response when you see an INSTANCE of the behavior, during the occurrence of the response.

INTERVAL recording – you record a response if the behavior occurs in one of a series of CONTINUOUS intervals.

TIME SAMPLE recording – you record a response if the behavior occurs within one of a series of DISCONTINUOUS intervals.


4. Stimulus control


The first tactic in using the stimulus control strategy is to narrow stimulus control through DISCRIMINATION training.


Tactic 2 in the stimulus control strategy is to broaden stimulus control through GENERALIZATION training.


Tactic 3 in the stimulus control strategy is to create new stimulus control by temporarily using PROMPTS.

Tactic 4 in the stimulus control strategy is creating complex stimulus control through IMIATION training and INSTRUCTIONAL training.


Tactic 5 in the stimulus control strategy is making reinforcement more practical by creating CONDITIONED  reinforcers.


5. Conditioned reinforcers


A PRIMARY reinforcer is any reinforcer that loses it’s effectiveness only temporarily through satiation.


A CONDITIONED reinforcer is a reinforcer that loses its effectiveness permanently through unpaired presentations.


A BACKUP reinforcer is any reinforcer that makes conditioned or generalized reinforcer effective.


A GENERALIZED reinforcer is a conditioned that it associated with many other reinforcers. And depends on its effectiveness on its backup reinforcers. (utilizing the principle of immediacy).


Token system

Behavior analysts frequently use token systems. A token system is a local monetary system backed up by available reinforcers. (money for example).when someone earn enough tokens he could obtain candy, shopping etc.


Stimulus response CHAIN

Is a sequence where each behavior produces an sd for the next behavior and the last behavior is reinforced.   





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